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A robot is an intelligent machine that can work semi-autonomously or fully autonomously. The earliest robots in history were found in the puppet robots created by the craftsmen in accordance with the image of Liu Peng by Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty. [1] 
Robots have basic characteristics such as perception, decision-making, and execution. They can assist or even replace humans in completing dangerous, heavy and complex work, improve work efficiency and quality, serve human life, and expand or extend the scope of human activities and capabilities. [2]

In 1920, Czech writer Karel Capek published the sci-fi play "Rosam's Universal Robot". In the script, Kepek wrote the Czech word "Robota" as "Robot", which means slave. The play foreshadowed the tragic impact of the development of robots on human society, which attracted widespread attention and was regarded as the origin of the word "robot". In the play, the robot works silently on the orders of its owner, without feeling and emotion, performing heavy labor in a rigid manner. Later, the success of the Rossam company made the robot have emotions, which led to a rapid increase in the application sector of the robot. In factories and domestic chores, robots have become indispensable members. The robot found that human beings were very selfish and unjust, and finally rebelled. The robot's physical strength and intelligence were excellent, so it wiped out the human being. But the robots didn't know how to make themselves, thinking they would soon become extinct, so they started searching for human survivors, to no avail. Finally, a pair of male and female robots with better perception than other robots fell in love. At this time, robots evolved into humans, and the world was brought back to life. [3]

What Kepek raises is the safety, perception, and self-reproduction of robots. Advances in science and technology are likely to cause problems that humans do not want to appear. Although the sci-fi world is only an imagination, human society will likely face this reality. [3]

In order to prevent robots from harming human beings, Asimov, a science fiction writer in 1950, proposed the "Three Principles of Robots" in his book "I am a Robot": [3]

①The robot must not harm humans, and it is not allowed to stand idly by seeing that humans will be harmed; [3]

②The robot must obey the orders of the human, unless the order of the human is contrary to the first; [3]

③The robot must protect itself from harm, unless this is contrary to the above two items. [3]

These three principles give new ethics to the robotic society. To this day, it still provides very meaningful guidelines for robotics researchers, design manufacturers and users. [3]

At the first robotics academic conference held in Japan in 1967, two representative definitions were proposed. First, Masahiro Mori and Shuhei Hetian put forward: "A robot is a flexible machine with seven characteristics, including mobility, individuality, intelligence, versatility, half-mechanical and half-human nature, automaticity, and slavery." Starting from this definition, Mori Masahiro proposed to use 10 characteristics to represent the robot's characteristics, including automation, intelligence, individuality, half-machine and half-human nature, workability, versatility, information, flexibility, finiteness, and mobility. image; the other is proposed by Kato Ichiro, a machine with the following 3 conditions can be called a robot: [3]

① An individual with the three elements of brain, hands and feet; [3]

②With non-contact sensors (receiving distant information with eyes and ears) and contact sensors; [3]

③ Sensors with balance sense and intrinsic sense. [3]

This definition emphasizes that the robot should have the characteristics of imitating human beings, that is, it operates with hands, moves with feet, and completes the task of unified command with the brain. Non-contact sensors and contact sensors are equivalent to human facial features, enabling robots to recognize the external environment, while balance sense and inherent sense are indispensable sensors for robots to perceive their own state. [3]


Robot Industry Association

A robot is a multifunctional manipulator that is used to move various materials, parts, tools or special devices, perform various tasks through programmable actions, and has programming capabilities. [3]


Industrial Robot Association

A robot is a general-purpose machine with a memory device and an end effector that can replace human labor through automated actions. [3]

international standardization

Definition of a robot

A robot is a machine that can be programmed and automatically controlled to perform tasks such as work or movement. [3]


Definition of a robot

A robot is an automated machine. The difference is that this machine has some intelligent capabilities similar to humans or creatures, such as perception, planning, action and coordination. It is a highly flexible automated machine. [3]

With the deepening of people's understanding of the intelligent nature of robotics, robotics has begun to penetrate into all fields of human activities. Combining the application characteristics of these fields, people have developed a variety of special robots and various intelligent robots with perception, decision-making, action and interaction capabilities. Although there is no strict and accurate definition of a robot, we hope to have some grasp of the essence of a robot: a robot is a mechanical device that performs work automatically. It can accept human command, run pre-programmed programs, or act according to principles and programs formulated with artificial intelligence technology. Its mission is to assist or replace human work. It is the product of advanced integrated cybernetics, mechatronics, computers, materials, and bionics, and has important uses in industry, medicine, agriculture, services, construction, and even the military.

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